Jun 01

What’s Up in the Sky

What’s Up in the Sky – June, 2017

The Great American Solar Eclipse

The monthly meeting of the Shoreline Amateur Astronomical Association on January 16, 1992 promised to be a fairly interesting event. Our guest was the accomplished Muskegon astrophotographer, Bill DeVette, who would be giving a talk titled, “Blackout in Baja”, during which he would share his experience observing and photographing the total solar eclipse of July 11, 1991, as viewed from Cabo San Lucas in Baja California, Mexico. As expected, Bill’s photos were stunning and his description of the eclipse was interesting, but what really blew most of us away was his cassette recording (remember, this was 1992) of the sounds of the people observing the eclipse.

For the first minute or so of the recording people were more or less milling around with casual conversations about the darkening sky, the equipment being used, and images being projected. All of a sudden the conversations stopped and cheering and shouting began. I remember thinking, what the heck is that all about? So I asked Bill that very question and he explained that this was a normal reaction for people witnessing a total solar eclipse – awe inspired exclamations of wonder and joy!

Fast forward to February 26, 1998. With the support of Fennville Public Schools I, as a teacher of astronomy, was able to travel with my wife, Lyne, to Aruba for another total eclipse of the Sun. It was there that I fully understood what I had heard on Bill’s tape recording. I was fairly involved with photographing the event for use in my classroom, but I did pause long enough to take in the splendor of one of nature’s most amazing spectacles. Lyne described it as “a mystical experience” and I can verify that it was a sight I will always remember. That is why I am greatly looking forward to the “Great American Eclipse” of August 21, 2017.

A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Earth and the Sun, casting its shadow on Earth’s surface. Just like the shadow of a beach ball on the sand, the Moon’s shadow is small compared to the entire Earth and as it moves over the terrain at about roughly 1000 miles per hour although this varies widely for different eclipses. In order to witness the total eclipse you have to be in the path of this shadow, called the path of totality. On August 21 this path stretches from Oregon to South Carolina, and is closest to us in parts of southern Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee.

Just Google “eclipse 2017” and you will find an abundance of information on locations and methods of safe viewing. I just want to emphasize a couple of important points. During the partial phase of the eclipse, that is, before the Sun is completely covered, NEVER look directly at the Sun, no matter how small a crescent it is. West Michigan is not in the path of totality so NEVER look directly at it from here. During totality, ALWAYS look directly at the eclipsed Sun, even with binoculars it is safe. Just be sure to STOP LOOKING when totality ends. The best way to observe the partial phases is to project the Sun’s image onto a sheet of white paper with binoculars or a pinhole camera.

Again, all this information can easily be found online. My goal for writing this article is to encourage readers to take the time to travel a few hours to a location where totality can be observed. I guarantee you will not be disappointed by this event, one of the most spectacular sights up in the sky.

This month in history:

June 3: Gemini IV astronaut, Ed White, takes America’s first space walk – 1965
June 5: Regular observations of Neptune begun by Voyager 2 – 1989
June 13: Pioneer 10 leaves solar system to begin its interstellar voyage – 1983
June 16: Valentina Tereshkova first (and only solo) woman in space – 1963
June 21: First privately-funded human space flight, SpaceShipOne, is launched – 2004
June 30: Tunguska impact flattens hundreds of miles of Siberian forrest – 1908

May 01

What’s Up in the Sky

What’s Up in the Sky – May, 2017

Leo, the “Star” of the Spring Sky

Springtime is great. The trees leaf out, the flowers start to bloom, the songbirds return to their feeders and baths. But the sky does not follow suit. The winter constellations are drifting toward the western horizon and the summer constellations have yet to make their appearance. Except for Leo, that is. Leo, the Lion, stands alone as a beacon hope, guarding his part of the sky so that others dare not trespass. And he’s easy to find.

About forty five minutes after sunset, face south and look about two thirds of the way up from horizon to overhead (your zenith). There you will see a grouping of stars consisting of a backwards question mark (or a sickle) and a right triangle, with the triangle toward the east (left). That’s the constellation Leo, the Lion.

One of the things I like best about Leo is that it is one of those groups of stars that is easy to visualize as the mythological creature it is supposed to represent. Imagine a lion, crouched Sphinx-like on the African grassland, its head and mane facing west, its hind quarters and tail to the east.

Its name is Latin for “lion” and, to the Greeks, represented the Nemean Lion killed by Heracles (Hercules) as one of his twelve labors. It is also one of the earliest recognized constellations, known to ancient Mesopotamians as early as 4000 BCE.

Look first for Regulus, standing alone in this part of the sky. “Regulus”, in Latin, means “little king” and is the name given to it by the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus in the sixteenth century. It is a fitting name for the “king of the beasts”.

Regulus is a rapidly spinning star some 75 light years distant, much larger and hotter than our Sun. It is also a double star, its companion being visible in a small telescope.

At the other end of the constellation is the star Denebola, whose name comes from the Arabic phrase meaning, “tail of the lion”. It is also more massive than the Sun and has fifteen times the Sun’s luminosity. It is closer than Regulus at a distance of 36 light years.

For those with a small telescope, Leo has much to offer. Just below the bottom-right star of the triangle can be found the “Leo Triplet”, a group of three spiral galaxies all visible at once in the telescope’s field of view. Farther west is another grouping of three bright galaxies also easily visible in a small telescope.

Now it is a great time to enjoy the mild evenings and explore the “king” of the constellations up in the sky.
This month in history:
May 5: Alan Shepard becomes first American in space – 1961
May 11: Launch of first geostationary weather satellite – 1974
May 12: Adler Planetarium in Chicago opens, first planetarium in western hemisphere – 1930
May 20: Pioneer-Venus 1 launched – 1978
May 25: President Kennedy gives speech challenging nation to land astronaut on Moon before the end of the decade – 1961
May 29: First experimental test of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity performed during total solar eclipse – 1919

Apr 01

What’s Up in the Sky

What’s Up in the Sky – April, 2017

Science as a Candle in the Dark*

Holland (the country, not the city) has a rich history when it comes to science, especially astronomy. In 1600 the Italian Roman Catholic scholar, Giordano Bruno, was burned at the stake for his beliefs, among other things, that the universe is home to an infinite number of worlds, some of which may harbor other lifeforms. A few years later Galileo suffered brutality and was placed under house arrest for the remainder of his life for his discoveries and speculations concerning the solar system.

Meanwhile, in Holland, the astronomer Christian Huygens, who held similar beliefs, was showered with honors. The country was an intellectual and cultural center as well as an exploratory power. Improved sailing ships encouraged technology of all kinds and inventions were prized. Light was a topic of universal interest, from the art of Vermeer to the microscope of van Leeuwenhoek and even Huygens’ own wave theory of light. Holland was a leading publisher of books and new ideas led renowned thinkers to reconsider long held beliefs. This was made possible in part by the fact that, while kings and emperors ruled much of the world, the Dutch Republic was governed, more than any other nation, by the people.

One could argue that it was here that the scientific revolution really began, with advances in communication, transportation and medicine vastly improving the well being of billions of people throughout the world in the centuries to follow. The lessons of history have a lot to teach us about the value of scientific inquiry as a way of understanding reality.

It is for this reason that many in the scientific community are greatly disturbed by the growing lack of understanding of how science works. It is not a matter of opinion. It is not up to a vote. It is not what is most popular or even what seems to make the most sense. Many scientists have suffered ostracism and ridicule for their discoveries. Rachael Carson was lambasted by the pesticide industry for her suggestion that DDT was harmful to the environment. Clair Patterson had his funding cut by the petroleum industry for his assertion that people were being poisoned by the lead in automobile exhaust. But today both DDT and leaded gasoline are banned substances.

We did land on the Moon, vaccines do not cause autism, and climate change is real and caused by human activity. We must not pick and choose what scientific theories we accept based on anything other than valid data and its proper analysis. We must not bury our head in the sand by cutting funding for science that is deemed inconvenient, unpopular, or threatening to the status quo. As Neil deGrasse Tyson said, “The good thing about science is that it’s true whether or not you believe in it.” And it all started with our desire to understand what’s up in the sky.

*from The Demon Haunted World, by Carl Sagan, 1995

This month in history:

April 2: First photograph of Sun taken – 1845
April 9: NASA selects original seven Mercury astronauts – 1959
April 12: Yuri Gagarin becomes first human in space – 1961
April 12: Columbia is first space shuttle to be launched – 1981
April 17: Apollo 13 returns to Earth – 1970
April 24: China becomes the fifth nation to launch its own satellite – 1970
April 25: Deployment of Hubble Space Telescope – 1990
April 28: Eugene Shoemaker is born – 1928

Mar 01

What’s Up in the Sky

What’s Up in the Sky – March, 2017

Planets Everywhere

Planets have been in the news a lot lately. After an historic flyby of Pluto in 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft continues toward its next target, Kuiper Belt object MU69, a small (estimated diameter of 30 miles, maximum), icy world orbiting the Sun beyond the planet Neptune. New Horizons is due to arrive at MU69 on January 1, 2019.

Earlier this month the Juno spacecraft made its fourth close flyby of Jupiter, passing 2700 miles above the planet’s clouds. During the flyby instruments on the spacecraft probed beneath the cloud layers to gather information about the planet’s composition and structure. And there is still action at Saturn where the Cassini spacecraft, launched in 1997 and nearing the end of its mission, continues to make important discoveries as it passes through the gap between the planet and its rings.

These missions help us understand the newly discovered planets orbiting other stars which have been in the news most recently. Last Wednesday, scientists using NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope announced the discovery of seven Earth-sized planets orbiting around a single star, the first such system to be detected. Three of the planets are located in the habitable zone, the area around the parent star where a rocky planet is most likely to have liquid water. All seven could have water, depending on their atmospheric conditions, but the chances are greatest for the three in the habitable zone. Named for The Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescope (TRAPPIST) in Chile which discovered the first three last May, this exoplanet system is called TRAPPIST-1. Associate Administrator of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA, Thomas Zurbuchen said, “this discovery could be a significant piece in the puzzle of finding habitable environments, places that are conducive to life.” He went on to echo the sentiments of many astrophysicists by saying, “answering the question ‘are we alone’ is a top science priority”. The Trappist-1 discovery will greatly help scientists in their work to answer that question.

Closer to home, you have undoubtedly noticed bright Venus shining like a beacon with fainter Mars nearby (up and to the left) in the western sky after sunset. Early risers probably have noticed Jupiter gleaming in the southeast before dawn. If you are intrigued by these sights and would like more information regarding our solar system neighbors, check out the Planetary Society at www.planetary.org.

Founded in 1980 by Carl Sagan, Louis Friedman, and Bruce Murray, its mission is to “empower the world’s citizens to advance space science and exploration.” Now headed by Bill Nye (the “Science Guy”), the Planetary Society offers a treasure trove of information and resources for the general public. On its web site you can find articles on everything from current missions to the planets to protecting Earth from asteroid collisions. The Society is also the leading advocate for space science in Washington D.C. Check it out if you are looking for great source of information on what’s up in the sky.

Feb 01

What’s Up in the Sky

What’s Up in the Sky – February, 2017

There’s Much to See When the Sky Clears

February usually does not lend itself to stargazing for several reasons – bad weather, cold nights, and bad weather. It is unfortunate because on clear nights there is quite a bit to see.

You probably have noticed the bright object in the southwest after sunset, and I’m sure regular readers know that it is the planet Venus. And if it is clear tonight you may spot a lovely crescent Moon just to its left. Both objects provide some good viewing during the first half of the month.

On February 3rd Venus reaches its highest point in the sky at sunset, and it will be at its brightest on the 16th. In fact, Venus is so bright it could be visible in the daytime in a very clear sky. Try looking due south about halfway between the horizon and the zenith (directly overhead) around 3:30 p.m. Stand in the shadow of a tree or building and use binoculars at first to locate it, then make a naked eye attempt. It’s a long shot, but I’m sure it would be something you’ve never seen before. It will continue to dominate the southwest sky in the early evening throughout the month.

A more challenging object to observe is the planet Mars, located about five degrees (the width of three fingers held at arm’s length) to the upper left of Venus. You will need binoculars to see it, however, but the Moon might help you find it tonight as it will form a small isosceles triangle the the two planets, with Mars at the top of the triangle. Look around 7:00 p.m. when they are still relatively high above the horizon.

February is also one of the best times of the year, weather notwithstanding, for constellations as well. With two dogs to his left, a rabbit at his feet, and a bull to his right Orion dominates the southern sky for most of the month and is always a favorite for young and old alike. Follow the line formed by the three belt stars down and to the left to Sirius, in the constellation Canis Major and the top two stars left to Procyon in Canis Minor. These are Orion’s two hunting dogs. Hiding safely under his feet is Lupus, the Rabbit, but it is very dim and difficult to see.

Returning to Orion, follow a line from Rigel, lower right, to Betelgeuse, upper left, (his two brightest stars) to the Gemini twins, Castor and Pollux, then continue clockwise to Auriga, the Charioteer, with the bright star Capella and Taurus, the Bull, where you can spot the Pleiades cluster farther west. Also look for the V-shaped cluster of stars, the brightest of which is Aldebaran, the “Eye of the Bull”. Six of these bright stars, Rigel Aldebaran, Capella, Pollux, Procyon and Sirius form the “Winter Hexagon”, a lovely winter sight up in the sky.

This month in history:

Feb. 1: Shuttle Columbia breaks apart during reentry killing all 7 astronauts – 2003
Feb. 6: Alan Shepard hits first golf balls on the Moon – 1971
Feb. 15: Galileo Galilei born – 1564
Feb. 18: Pluto discovered – 1930
Feb. 20: John Glenn is first American to orbit Earth – 1962
Feb. 23: Light from supernova 1987a reaches Earth – 1987

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